Igneous Rocks

Igneous rock is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic rock. Igneous rock is formed through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava.

Igneous and metamorphic rocks make up 90–95% of the top 16 km of the Earth’s crust by volume.

In terms of modes of occurrence, igneous rocks can be either intrusive or extrusive.




Convection and Radiation

What is convection ?

The movement caused within a fluid by the tendency of hotter and therefore less dense material to rise, and colder, denser material to sink under the influence of gravity, which consequently results in transfer of heat.

What is radiation?

The emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles which cause ionization.


Light And Space

Visible light (commonly referred to simply as light) is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye, and is responsible for the sense of sight.









It travels through space at 300 000 kilometers per second(km/s). At this speed, it could travel 7 times round the Earth in a second.

The sun is 150 million kilometers away. It takes light from the sun 500 seconds to get here – that’s about 8 minutes.

The Sun : 150 000 000 km  away from planet Earth

The Sun : 150 000 000 km away from planet Earth